Mighty Manganese

#MightyManganese #Manganese

Mighty Manganese.png

DEFINITION......................................................................................................................... 1

DENDRITES......................................................................................................................... 3

MANGANESE AND MUSHROOMS............................................................................... 4

MANGANESE PURITY, AND AS A CATALYST............................................................. 5

POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE...................................................................................... 6

SCIENCE............................................................................................................................... 8

MANGANESE AND METABOLISM............................................................................... 10

RSI – REPETITIVE STRESS INURIES............................................................................ 12

CELLULAR SANITATION AND SUPER OXIDE DISMUTASE................................... 13

MnSOD2, THE MIGHTY MICE, AND PEPCK.............................................................. 14

IRI- ISCHEMIC REPERFUSION INJURIES.................................................................... 15

AMMONIA, ARGINASE, ASTROCYTES, AUTISM AND UREA................................ 16

ADDITIONAL BENEFITS OF MANGANESE................................................................ 19

MANGANESE DEFICIENCY CONDITIONS................................................................. 20

DR. CARL PFEIFFER......................................................................................................... 23

MANGANISM AND PARKINSON’S............................................................................... 24

TOXINS AND MANGANESE CHELATORS................................................................. 27

MANGANESE FROM FOODS........................................................................................ 29

SUMMARY AND SUPPLEMENTATION........................................................................ 30

DISCLAIMER....................................................................................................................... 31

Copyright 2018 Albert Wilking


Manganese is a chemical element with atomic number 25.  It is not found as a free element in nature, but is often bound with iron.

Manganese is mysterious, and like the element itself, our understanding of it is clouded in some mystery.
“Late 14th century, in alchemy, "main ingredient of the philosopher's stone," from Medieval Latin magnesia, from Greek (he) Magnesia (lithos) "the lodestone," literally "(the) Magnesian (stone)," from Magnesia, region in Thessaly, which is said to be named for the native people name Magnetes, which is of unknown origin. The ancient word, in this sense, has evolved into magnet.  But in ancient times the same word, magnes, was used of lodestone as well as of a mineral commonly used in bleaching glass (modern pyrolusite, or manganese dioxide).”

Many cultures have tales of indestructible swords.  It’s quite possible that King Arthur’s sword, and so many of the ‘magical’ swords through the ages, may have been manganese-hardened steel.  Iron, atomic number 26, and manganese are neighbors in the periodic table of elements.  They work well together.  You will see that letting them work together in your body will be of great benefit to you.
Elements of Faith Vol. 1: Hydrogen to Tin: Faith Facts and Learning Lessons From The Periodic Table

There are many references to manganese as a magical element.
“Manganese, whose name is derived from a Greek word for magic, is an essential trace element that is required by organisms across every kingdom of life.  The magic of manganese lies not only in its ability to transform itself into an effector for a diverse range of redox and nonredox functions, but also in its ability to appear and disappear from a variety of locations within a cell.”
Manganese Homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae


Animal life on Earth would not exist without Manganese.  Green life on earth would not exist without Manganese.  Photosynthesis II requires manganese atoms to break water, H20, into hydrogen and oxygen

“By replenishing lost electrons with electrons from the splitting of water, photosystem II provides the electrons for all of photosynthesis to occur.”

“Photosynthetic water splitting (or oxygen evolution) is one of the most important reactions on the planet, since it is the source of nearly all the atmosphere's oxygen.”

“The oxygen-evolving complex is the site of water oxidation.  It is a metallo-oxo cluster comprising four manganese ions (in oxidation states ranging from +2 to +4) and one divalent calcium ion.”
Photosystem II


90% of cellular oxygen is used in the Mitochondria.
“The mitochondrion is present in almost all eukaryotes, with the exception of anaerobic protozoa... “
Oxidative Phosphorylation


Oxidized compounds can cause us physical harm if they aren’t quickly broken down.
“The paradox of aerobic life, or the 'Oxygen Paradox', is that higher eukaryotic aerobic organisms cannot exist without oxygen, yet oxygen is inherently dangerous to their existence.”



Dendrites are defined as

1.  A short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the cell body.
2.  A crystal or crystalline mass with a branching, treelike structure.

3.  A natural tree like or moss like marking on a piece of rock or mineral.

Our body is composed of networks, and our networks looks very much like the repeating dendritic systems we see in nature.  Naturally formed manganese dendrites in rock formations look like geographic maps, and they both look like the structure of trees and the nervous systems of biological organisms.

Even though these look like ferns, these are not fossils in these pictures; this is elemental manganese naturally creating the dendrite form.

Dendrite Manganese – Google Image Search

Manganese is used by plants in photosynthesis, and is not part of the chlorophyll, but for the plant to photosynthesize, it has to go through an array of four manganese atoms.  This array of manganese triggers an incredible amount of biological processes.

In our bodies, dendrites are part of our neural network.  This is what they look like in our body.  Notice how much the look like the branch systems of dendrites in rock formations, and the root and branching systems of plants.
Dendrites and Synapses

Where else do we see these branching structures?

Cardiovascular systems
Mushroom branching networks
Nervous systems
Root systems
Tree branches

We don’t understand how these dendrite networks are formed, and we don’t understand the whole picture of manganese.  There is a relationship between manganese and these dendrite systems, and the dendrite systems in our own bodies.


The workings of manganese peroxidase are outside the scope of this article.  However, I wanted to include some basics because there seems to be a dendrite/manganese structure behind their intelligence.  Mushrooms are generally not high in manganese, but they use manganese as a catalyst to digest food sources.
The relationship between lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production capacities and cultivation periods of mushrooms.


Please look at this picture of a mycelium.  Does it look familiar?

I have included in this article the following eleven-minute video, as it gives a specifics examples of mushroom intelligence.  In particular, watch for the Japanese study where the mycelium redesigns the Japanese subway system into one of greater efficiency.

Stoned Ape & Fungal Intelligence - Paul Stamets



Manganese purifies and cleans much of what it touches.  It was called glassmakers soap, it removes impurities from steel, helps sterilize drinking water, releases oxygen for us to breathe, cleans out our mitochondria, and breaks down toxic ammonia inside our bodies.

“Manganese dioxide is believed to have been first used as a glass de-colorizer as early as about the second century B.C.  It was probably introduced as the mineral pyrolusite. From Roman times onward, glasses often contain about 0.5% to 1.0% manganese oxide (MnO).  Later on, manganese dioxide (MnO2) was sometimes called "glassmakers' soap."

Decolorizers (Manganese Dioxide)

“Manganese is useful in steel manufacture because it binds with phosphorus, sulfur, and silica, removing them (to a degree) from the iron.  It was much used in conjunction with the Bessemer process both to introduce carbon and manganese, and also to reduce impurities.”
Manganese—It Turns Iron Into Steel (and Does So Much More)

“Manganese appears in structural steel grades in amounts ranging from

about 0.50 to 1.70 percent. It has effects similar to those of carbon, and the steel producer uses these two elements in combination to obtain a material with the desired properties. Manganese is a necessity for the process of hot rolling of steel by its combination with oxygen and sulfur.”
Chemical Composition of Structural Steels



Did you ever watch a movie and the safe crackers spend all night long trying to get the safe open?  Safes are made with Mangalloy, which is about 13% manganese, and makes it near impossible to break, crack, drill, or even explode the steel.


This article recommends the use of manganese dioxide to purify ground water.
Manganese is a chemical catalyst.  It makes things happen. 
A catalyst is best described as something that drives change.  A skier at the top of a grassy ski slope in the summer can slide down the slope and eventually get to the bottom of the hill. At the top of the hill, the skier has the potential, over time, to get to the bottom of the slope. The same skier will have an easier time getting to the bottom of the slope in the winter when the hill is covered in snow, which accelerates the potential. The snow is the catalyst. It allows the skier to move faster and accelerates the act of reaching the bottom. Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War were both catalysts for change in US policies on secession and slavery. In chemistry, a catalyst causes or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected. In water treatment, MnO2 provides filter media with a catalyst. Manganese dioxide creates a catalytic effect in the chemical oxidation-reduction reactions necessary to remove iron, manganese, H2S, arsenic and radium.”
The Magic of Manganese Dioxide: What It Is and Why You Should Care




This link contains a 1970-1972 NASA report on scrubbing mercury out of the air. Note the KMnO4 works with or without the Zeolite.  I do not fully understand how the mercury is being trapped, and this report appears to be a one off, as I can find nowhere else that uses a KMnO4 for mercury remediation.
Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

The above would work for scrubbing mercury out of coal fired power plants, however, it appears European plants will be using other less expensive technologies.
How to cut mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

The following is excerpted from manganese used as a medicine in the form potassium permanganate.
“If taken by mouth it is deemed to be very toxic.  Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, and shortness of breath may occur.  If a sufficiently large amount (about 10 grams) is eaten death may occur.”

“Concentrated solutions when drunk have resulted in adult respiratory distress syndrome or swelling of the airway.”
Potassium Permanganate (medical use)


Potassium Permanganate,  KMnO4, is used by the healthcare industry.

"Potassium permanganate is used for a number of skin conditions.  This includes fungal infections of the foot, impetigo, pemphigus, superficial wounds, dermatitis, and tropical ulcers.[2][6] It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system."
Potassium Permanganate

Online can be found videos of people recommending potassium permanganate baths for Morgellon’s.  My recommendation is to proceed with extreme caution.  The amount of KMnO4 used in many of the videos and pictures I have seen has been far too strong in my opinion.  I have personally taken baths in KMnO4, I have used it topically, and I have drunk it.  While regularly using it topically, I did wake up several nights with some respiratory distress.  I had dreams of being underwater and unable to breath, I think I was holding my breath in my sleep, and I woke up gasping for air.  KMnO4 is an extremely strong oxidizer.  Drinking a too concentrated form of it can kill a person.  For those suffering from Morgellon’s, I recommend that they get their internal manganese and other essentials in balance, before using it topically.
Potassium Permanganate for purification, first aid and signaling.


Research from 1886 shows use of potassium permanganate for loss of periods in young women.  Obviously, from the gastric distress the subjects experienced, the Doctor was giving an enormous dose of the KMnO4.  I think the reason Manganese gets buried is that it isn’t a medicine, it’s a natural combination of elements.  Drug companies can’t make money from it.  Better to leave it in the dusty back shelf than fine tune an element/treatment that actually works.
International Record of Medicine and General Practice Clinics
Volume 43 Year 1886


Notice the use of the word ‘chlorotic’ for the condition of the women’s skin. 
Manganese is what allows photosynthesis in plants, whether these researchers knew this or not.  Leaves turn yellow without enough manganese, and the “Chlorotic” women  were probably pale/anemic/yellow looking.
“In botany, chlorosis is a condition in which leaves produce insufficient chlorophyll.  As chlorophyll is responsible for the green color of leaves, chlorotic leaves are pale, yellow, or yellow-white.”


A list of medical uses of Manganese from 1902
Manganum — Manganese


Manganese Testing for Flavonoids
Using manganese to determine the presence of flavonoids.  This tells me that manganese and flavonoids are closely interrelated; they recognize one another.
“The Mn complexation method was adapted for on-line liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and tested using flavonoid extracts from Fuji apples (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Fuji) and red onions (Allium cepa L.).”
LC-MSn methods for saccharide characterization of monoglycosyl flavonoids using postcolumn manganese complexation.


Manganese dioxide and Zinc are now being combined in alkaline and rechargeable batteries, giving them much longer life spans.
Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources


Colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) is a property of some materials, mostly manganese-based perovskite oxides, that enables them to dramatically change their electrical resistance in the presence of a magnetic field.
Colossal Magnetoresistance


“The most successful traditional theories cannot explain Colossal Magneto Resistance.  Double-exchange theory, for example, describes the relation between magnetic transitions and metal-insulator transitions in terms of the orientation of electron spins at adjacent sites.  For lanthanum strontium manganese oxide there should be only about a 30 percent change in conductivity.”

"In fact," says Chuang, "the observed changes are much bigger, by orders of magnitude.  Thus the 'colossal' effect."
Closing in on the Theory of Colossal Magnetoresistance

I'm seeing Manganese as the card reader, like as in a credit card terminal, where it reads the electrical charges and alters them appropriately.  I see Manganese as being the processor, the machine that zaps the loose bound metabolic package coming down the assembly line.  The loose parts go through this kind of manganese instrument, maybe it zaps it with an electrical charge, and that is when it creates the finished product. 
“The next generation of computers will be “instant-on,” meaning they won’t need to be booted up to move hard-drive data into memory. They’ll also store data in a smaller space and access it faster, while consuming less power than today’s machines — thanks in part to the development of magnetic random access memory chips, or MRAM.
A Different Spin on Future Data Storage


As if the properties of Manganese are not strange enough, Manganese is the poster child of unusual crystalline structures.
Periodic Table (crystal structure)


We think the manganese is unpredictable, as the magnetic state of the structure is unstable, and flips back and forth.  However, I propose that we simply don’t understand how manganese works.

My theory is that we keep seeing things for their physical appearance, rather than for their energies.  We see this in the article where it is described that we are yet unable to harness the electromechanical powers of manganese because of the low temperatures.  What is not being considered is how Manganese is adding intelligence, order to life.  I propose that Manganese allows us to flip the switch, to be able to see both sides of an equation.  Maybe this is partly what happens when our manganese is impinged on, we end up being trapped in a set way of thinking.  The person with OCD, or maybe the autistic, who must have the same order every time, because they are so deficient in Manganese, they attempt to exert their authority over their environments, to keep things ordered as the missing manganese would have done.


Metabolism is defined as “the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.”

The following link has an incredible graphic of metabolic cycles and pathways. 
Most of the manganese related metabolites discussed in this article could be found in this graphic, whether the metabolite is part of a cycle, or a pathway.

Metabolic Pathways

Interference with any of these processes may cause a ripple effect, where processes further down the line will not function properly.  For example, most pharmaceuticals work by interfering with Metabolic Pathways.  This treats a symptom.  For example, a person with cystic acne may be given a steroid that treats the skin condition, but it never solves the problem.  The steroid skirts the real issue, as the person has a problem making their own internal steroids, as something is interfering with their metabolism.  Later the patient may need another drug, as the steroid begins to interfere with other metabolic cycles and pathways.  They are told, “We don’t have a cure for your problem, but we have found many people taking XYZ drug, will need ABC drug, and studies show these drugs ‘compliment’ one another.

Anything interfering with our metabolisms, whether it is a toxin like mercury, a deficiency, or a drug, will throw of our metabolic cycles, our literal balance, like a washing machine that is thrown off balance, and can literally shake itself apart.

Manganese isn’t used as an exchanger, like sodium or potassium, so we don’t need  big stores of it, and there isn’t large amounts of it in the blood.  Supposedly, the body does NOT store manganese; it is all put to work.  In instances where there has been an accumulation of dietary manganese, there may be something impinging on its metabolic use.  This would be akin to having a fleet of garbage trucks ready to take away the city’s garbage, but there is no fuel, or drivers to drive them.

This 1967 study shows that manganese supersedes magnesium when binding to B1-Globulins.  For our immune systems to properly function, we may need more manganese, and less magnesium, and magnesium may actually interfere with our use of manganese.  Manganese is not found ‘free floating’ in our bodies, it is always bound to proteins, contrary to magnesium.
The Discrimination between Magnesium and Manganese by Serum Proteins

Manganese is an essential part of the citric acid cycle, and in many cases acts as a catalyst.
Citric Acid Cycle


Pyruvate Carboxylase – Creates Oxaloacetate to kick-off the Citric Acid Cycle,

and was the first metalloenzyme shown to contain manganese.
Pyruvate Carboxylase

Manganese, but not Magnesium binds to Tyrosine entering the citric acid cycle.
Nonenzymatic phosphorylation of tyrosine and serine by ATP is catalyzed by manganese but not magnesium.

The Nutritional Relationships of Manganese


Those deficient in Manganese can end up with RSI, repetitive stress injuries.  They keep hitting themselves in the same spot with a hammer.  I had sprained my left ankle probably up to 30-60 times over 35 years.  I played a lot of basketball, but it got so bad I could sprain it on a crack in the sidewalk.  It was like repeatedly biting a lip ulcer in my mouth.

The following is a direct, but lengthy quote:

“The principal area we will notice low manganese is in tendon control.  In Joel Wallach's book "Rare Earth's Forbidden Cure's" printed in 1994, he attributes RSI (repetitive strain injury) to low manganese levels.  Any injury around a joint may involve tendons.  Tendons and ligaments join muscle to bone.  If muscle is stretched tight because of low manganese, this is going to put pressure on the tendons too.  This can cause problems from the feet (often archilles tendon) up through any of the joints - knees, hip, shoulders, back, arms, wrists and even ears.

The first visible sign that our manganese is slipping is droopy eyelids.  We may think it is good to be able to put eye-shadow on and be able to see it, but in reality it tells us something is wrong.  Start looking at other people's eyelids - you can't actually see the eyelid - it disappears up under the eyebrows.  This is normal.  Next, a bit further down the track we may start to get tinnitus - noises in the ears.  Your doctor may tell you this will just get worse over the years and you have to put up with it!

There are tendons holding the little bones in the ear that transmit sound, in place too and they are so delicate that it doesn't take long before they are malfunctioning because of poor tendon control.  Don't just listen to the noises, listen to your body.  It is trying to tell you to get more manganese coming through.

If you don't do anything at this stage, later you will start to have real tendon problems.  Painful joints, pulled or torn ligaments, contractures of the fingers with visible tight bands across the palm.  Ankles will twist easily.  We lose coordination and become clumsy.  We fall over more, bump into things and generally do ourselves an injury.  Eventually we need surgery to various
places - all for the want of a bit of manganese.“

Manganese For Tendons

The tendons in the middle ear hold the Ossicles, 3 bones literally called the Hammer, the Anvil, and the Stirrup.  A deficiency of manganese may be the cause of tinnitus.
The Middle Ear



Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2−) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Superoxide is produced as a by-product of oxygen metabolism and, if not regulated, causes many types of cell damage.

SOD is what detoxes the mitochondria.

There are three types of SOD:

SOD1 zinc and copper based

SOD2 manganese based called MnSOD2

SOD3 iron based

‘Knockout mice’ have been bred to be missing genetic parts, in other words certain genes have been ‘knocked out’ of them.  Here are some facts about Manganese deficient mice.

Mice born with knockouts for SOD1 and SOD3, limp along through life, with poor metabolic functions.  SOD1 knockouts age very quickly.

MnSOD, that is SOD2, deficient mice many times are still born, and/or die immediately after birth.  It they are not able to put their manganese to use, MnSOD2, the generated free radicals from our cellular respiration kill them.  This proves there is no substitution for SOD2.  For SOD1 and SOD3, the mitochondria may be substituting MnSOD2 in their places. 

Manganese is the king of cellular respiration.

These knockout mice of MnSOD2 live up to three weeks.
Neurodegeneration, myocardial injury, and perinatal death in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-deficient mice


Please read pages 96 and 97 of this link, which will lead us into our next section.
Metal Ions in Biological Systems: Volume 37: Manganese and Its Role in Biological Systems

The MnSOD is going to throw garbage out of your cells and into your extracellular space, space that you didn't know you had.  Toxins like mercury poison us on the way in, and they poison us on the way out, and in the case of cellular respiration, it may simply be oxygen radicals. 

It’s important to move slowly when supplementing with manganese.  You may take a large dose at one time, 50mg for example, but don’t take this everyday, and definitely don’t do it while constipated.


Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, PEPCK, is important for our metabolisms to break down carbohydrates into simple sugars.  When we are deficient in manganese, we will have problems utilizing our carbohydrates, and we can end up fermenting them.  Think candida, like rotting garbage, because the manganese sanitation department is on strike.

“The mitochondrial isoform of chicken liver PEPCK complexed with Mn2+, Mn2+-phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), and Mn2+-GDP provides information about its structure and how this enzyme catalyzes reactions.”
Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase

Manganese is essential for the normal functioning of our metabolic cycles.  Even when rats are simply deficient in manganese, they fair poorly

“These findings suggest that glucose homeostasis in the newborn may be compromised by manganese deficiency and may support the concept that changes in cellular manganese concentration may be important in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.”
Pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity in developing rats: effect of manganese deficiency.


Mice that have been genetically modified to produce more PEPCK have been dubbed “The Mighty Mice.”  From our above research, we know that manganese is complicit in the mouse’s use of PEPCK.

The reason these mice are not producing lactic acid is because they are so efficient at breaking down carbohydrates, that they don’t have to break down their own muscles for energy.  Lactic acid is what makes us feel achy a day or two after working out.  For me personally, supplementing with manganese, I have very few aches and pains, and I exercise regularly.

"The mighty mice are metabolically similar to Lance Armstrong biking up the Pyrenees.  They utilize mainly fatty acids for energy and produce very little lactic acid.  They are not eating or drinking and yet they can run for four or five hours. They are 10 times more active than ordinary mice in their home cage.  They also live longer – up to three years of age – and are reproductively active for almost three years.  In short, they are remarkable animals.  However, they eat twice as much as control mice, but they are half the weight, and are very aggressive. Why this is the case, we are not really sure."
PEPCK-Cmus Mouse

The Mouse That Shook The World


The following is an example of a reperfusion injury.  A man is camping in the woods and gets a severe cut to his forearm.  The man applies a tourniquet just below his elbow to prevent any more loss of blood.  Arriving four hours later at the hospital the man’s lower arm is blue, and his hand is purple.  When may an extreme necrosis, cellular death, occur in the man’s hand?

When the tourniquet is released, if it is released all at once, there will be a huge influx of blood and oxygen.  If the detox pathways, the veins, are not open enough to carry away the carbon dioxide produced by cellular respiration, extreme cell death and necrosis can occur.

If the blood is let into the arm very slowly, it will limit oxidative damage.  The bodies and cells ability to open up the veins to take away carbon dioxide must open up at the same rate as the fresh blood coming in, or severe cellular damage can take place.  The back end sanitation department is the MnSOD.

These results suggest that mitochondrial O2 production may be a critical step underlying the mechanism of ischemia/reperfusion injury and that MnSOD may protect against ongoing oxidative cell death after ischemia/reperfusion.”
Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Deficiency Exacerbates Cerebral Infarction After Focal Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion in Mice

The following article has an easy to understand pictorial analogy to the movie, The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly.

“Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury (IRI) occurring with ischemia and restoration of blood flow to post-ischemic tissue, is associated with arrhythmias, myocardial necrosis and apoptosis,resulting in increased mortality and morbidity.

Calcium overload, pH recovery, and ROS overproduction are major players in determining IRI.  Mitochondria play a pivotal role in life and death.”
Mechanisms of Ischemia Reperfusion Injury (IRI)


The IRI, ischemic reperfusion injury is complicit in Autism.  When the child or any person, severely swells from an autoimmune response, if the blood is thinned, if more oxygen is sent to the site of the injury than the body can handle, that is when the most serious damage occurs. 

In many cases autism is a type of stroke taking place in children.  I first heard of this theory through the research of Dr. Andrew Moulden.

Vaccine injuries, Dr. Andrew Moulden, Conférence Liberté de Choix

I believe Tylenol to be complicit in many vaccine injuries.  Tylenol poisonings account for more than 75,000 emergency room visits a year.  Tylenol thins the blood, and depletes our sulfur.  Ischemic reperfusion injuries are the root cause of many cases of autism.

Damage to the neural networks, astrocytes, causes long-term dysfunction.  If the neural networks can be repaired, then the body can reduce the swelling, and break down ammonia.  Manganese in the form of MnSOD takes away the oxidized radicals, it breaks down carbohydrates in PEPCK, and thus prevents buildup of lactic acid, and as an essential part of arginase, it reduces ammonia that will otherwise cause long term swelling.

“Glutamine synthetase in the brain participates in the metabolic regulation of glutamate, the detoxification of brain ammonia, the assimilation of ammonia, recyclization of neurotransmitters, and termination of neurotransmitter signals.  GS, in the brain, is found primarily in ARGINASE.  Astrocytes protect neurons against excitotoxicity by taking up excess ammonia and glutamate.  In hyperammonemic environments (high levels of ammonia), astroglial swelling occurs.”
Glutamine Synthetase


Arginase, containing 4 Mn(II) ions per enzyme;
ARGINASE is the final enzyme of the Urea Cycle.  It keeps us from being poisoned by ammonia.


Anyone having an ammonia problem may not have enough available manganese  to break down ammonia into urea. 

A wonderful graphic of Urea cycle and Nitrogen Transport

Manganese is not always found in our enzymes; many times, it is the metabolic catalyst for them.  The same way that Manganese works in photosynthesis.  Manganese is not in the byproducts of the processes, but is responsible for their creation.

Manganese can help the liver detox, by sending waste products to the kidneys.  It can help with backed up bilirubin in the liver.  “Arginase catalyzes the fifth and final step in the urea cycle, a series of biochemical reactions in mammals during which the body disposes of harmful ammonia.  Specifically, arginase converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and urea.”

Manganese takes the stress off the liver by breaking ammonia down into urea, which is then sent to the kidneys.  
Manganese Biological Role

Arginase is a manganese-containing enzyme.  The reaction catalyzed by this enzyme is: arginine + H2O → ornithine + urea.  It is the final enzyme of the urea cycle.  It is ubiquitous to all domains of life.



Although the following study is in regards to measuring biomarkers for autism, it can be seen that if arginase is hung up, there will be resulting inflammation.

Although the following study is in regards to measuring biomarkers for autism, it can be seen that if arginase is hung up, there will be resulting inflammation.

“As arginase requires a free arginine for conversion to ornithine an interesting alternative possibility is that this C-terminal arginine residue is ADP-ribosylated by an arginine-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART) catalyzing the transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD, with the possibility of a ‘secondary’ modification of the ADP-ribosylated arginine resulting in replacement of ADP-ribosylarginine by ornithine as shown for HNP-1.  Lack of ART expression, that is ART2, has previously been correlated with enhanced susceptibility to autoimmune diseases.  Altered immune function and complement-system deficiency has been reported for children with ASD, indicating a recurrent incidence of immunological diseases.  Other investigations have shown significantly increased levels of inflammatory markers such as TNF-a, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF and IFN-g in the post mortem brain tissue of individuals with autism and immune dysfunction has also been proposed as a potential mechanism for the pathogenesis of ASD.”
A novel blood-based biomarker for detection of autism spectrum disorders

There is a very close relationship between Arginase, which catabolizes into Arginine and H20, and Nitric Oxide.  Nitric oxide (NO) is a vasodilator.  As needed the NO will dilate the veins and arteries, letting in both more oxygen in the blood, and more quickly taking away the ROS.
Nitric Oxide Synthetase

“Thus, our understanding of Nitric Oxide in EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis) and MS has shifted from the early belief that it is purely a destructive molecule contributing to disease pathology, to a current more balanced view of NO as an immune regulator, which can both promote and prevent autoimmune inflammation depending on its dosage and context of action.”
Arginase and autoimmune inflammation in the central nervous system


Glutamine is a precursor to arginine, and fever may reduce swelling by triggering a clean out of ROS causing swelling.  During fever, glutamine is released.  There may be a cleaning out of ROS from the arginine, and or there may be vasodilation created by Nitric Oxide produced from the freed up arginine.

Cuba has vaccinations for measles, but they have a much lower incidence of autism, and in Cuba, Tylenol is only available by prescription.

“Parents and pediatricians of children with autistic disorders know fever is often accompanied by dramatic relief of autistic behavior.  How this happens has not been detected, but a little-known clue suggests a promising line of inquiry – improvements sometimes begin hours before fever.”
A critical clue to fever’s dramatic relief of autistic behavior



“Manganese is involved in many different biochemical processes and can, therefore, adversely affect a number of systems throughout the body.  Low levels of manganese in the body can result in impaired glucose tolerance, altered carbohydrate and fat metabolism, skeletal abnormalities, bone demineralization and malformation, stunted growth, decreased serum cholesterol levels, skin rash and elevated blood calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels.  In addition, manganese deficiencies can result in infertility, seizures, weakness, nausea or vomiting, dizziness, hearing loss, iron-deficiency anemia, weak hair and nails and convulsions, blindness or paralysis in infants.”
The Symptoms of Manganese Deficiency

The following is a great article, concentrating mostly on the relationship of the thymus and manganese, similar to the relationship of iodine and the thyroid.
Myasthenia Gravis


This article is on the Mayo Clinic website.  There are some truths, and one big lie, “There is NO cure for myasthenia gravis.”  That is a lie.

To cure myasthenia gravis, start by getting mercury out of the body.  Tyrosine kinase is blocked in myasthenia gravis.  However, tyrosine kinase is manganese related, and by simply supplementing with manganese, the body makes more tyrosine kinase. 

Myasthenia Gravis

An extensive article
The Clinical Effects of Manganese (Mn)


The Nutritional Relationships of Manganese


Alcoholics go deficient in thiamine.  Thiamine has a sulfur atom.  It will keep the liver from being toxic, and the bile working.  We are using the Epsom to get the bile running, and mercury leaving the body.  We add in the Thiamine to keep the systems going, then we can add in the Manganese to do the deep cell cleaning.  If you are a drinker, and/or have liver problems, supplement with high doses of thiamine before adding manganese.

Manganese showing up in the brains of those with cirrhosis of the liver may be a symptom of thiamine deficiency.  This cannot be discounted.

Nutrition in the Management of Cirrhosis and its Neurological Complications

Manganese cleans out the ROS of our cells, including those in our bronchial pathways.  By cleaning out the ROS, it allows our body to take in more oxygen.  See the section called Cellular Sanitation and Superoxide Dismutase

Athlete’s Foot Fungus
I believe I have been able to eliminate a toenail fungus in my right ring toenail, one where iodine would not solve the problem.

Potassium Permanganate For The Feet

Mice given supplemental manganese helped protect them from iron toxicity and diabetes inducing diets.
“Mitochondrial dysfunction is both a contributing mechanism and complication of diabetes, and oxidative stress contributes to that dysfunction. Mitochondrial manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a metalloenzyme that provides antioxidant protection.”
Manganese Supplementation Protects Against Diet-Induced Diabetes in Wild Type Mice by Enhancing Insulin Secretion


Keep in mind the study of manganese and potassium permanganate was in its infancy at this time.

Learning From The Wounded
The Civil Ware and Rise of American Medical Science


The Philadelphia Medical Journal - 1901

Have you ever heard that spine and skeletal problems are caused by manganese deficiencies?  Probably not, as there is a huge and profitable industry treating skeletal problems of people deficient in manganese, whether its spine surgeries or chronic arthritis.

However, when manganese is profitable, as in the chicken industry, the research is extensive.

Baby chicks are born with malformed skeletons when they are deficient in manganese.  This isn’t some newfangled study, it’s from 1939. 

The Amount of Manganese Required to Prevent Perosis in the Chick

This webpage has pictures of baby chicks born deformed because of manganese deficiencies.
“Perosis or chondrodystrophy is encountered in young birds whose diet is deficient in manganese (Mn) or some of the following vitamins: choline, nicotic acid, pyridoxine, biotin or folic acid.”
Diseases of Poultry

Note the following, that excess calcium, phosphorous and iron can cause manganese deficiencies.
“Certain minerals, if provided in excess, can limit the retention of manganese in chickens; such minerals include calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe).“
Manganese Deficiency

Potassium permanganate worked on my toenail fungus, but it did not help like iodine did for the ringworm in my cats.  The following treatment solved the problem in less than a week.

I have had experience treating cats for ringworm and have found that Iodine was more effective at clearing it up than KMnO4.  In a shallow bowl I added ¼ cup of water, 1 tsp Dr. Willard’s Water, and 10 drops 5% Lugol’s Iodine.  Dip their front paws in the solution and rub it into their fur and in and around their paw pads.  Then apply the solution to their heads including ears and underneath their jaws.  Go over their eyes with it as well.  Gently rub it into their infected skin.

Tooth Decay
Lactic acid is what is rotting our teeth in most cases.  By supplementing with manganese, our saliva will break down that lactic acid, and possibly re-mineralize our teeth.  See Cellular Sanitation and Superoxide Dismutase.


Dr. Pfeiffer discovered the importance of manganese in helping schizophrenics.  I don't think he understood the huge role mercury plays in people’s sickness, but I consider him a forbearer of my own research.  Dr Preiffer recommended Zinc, Manganese and vitamin B6, pyridoxine for the treatment of schizophrenia.

Pfeiffer helped more than15,000 people.  He kept detailed records of his clients and included biological tests like the HTMA (hair test mineral analysis.)

Dr. Pfeiffer found that schizophrenics commonly had high levels of kryptopyrolle (HPL) in their urine.  He called this condition pyroluria, and he helped them reduce their HPL levels recommending they supplement with manganese, zinc, and vitamin B6.

Dr. Pfeiffer helped start orthomolecular medicine, and "Orthomolecular psychiatry's goal of weaning patients from conventional neuroleptic drugs follows "Pfeiffer's Law", "For every drug that benefits a patient, there is a natural substance that can achieve the same effect"

However he was ostracized
by the health care/pharmaceutical industry, because he wasn't prescribing drugs.  He was recommending natural cures.
"Few, if any, medical experts regard the condition as genuine, and few or no articles on pyroluria are found in modern medical literature; the approach is described as "snake oil" by pediatrician and author Julian Haber."

Take that as we kick you out the door!  This is the only entry in Wikipedia for pyroluria.
Orthomolecular Psychiatry

This type of behavior by healthcare ‘authorities’ was also exposed by Carl Pfeiffer, when he notes at the start of his paper, that the 1934 Hoskins report on manganese for schizophrenics was used instead of the other well researched, and documented studies.  Manganese was no longer used for treatment, and the supplementation of it was buried for almost 50 years.

The philanthropic thinking of Dr. Pfeiffer is evident in the following quote from his paper of 1983.  However, I believe that his recommended doses are too low, and that his research is missing the importance of sulfur, and poisonings from toxins like mercury.

“The beneficial effect of Zn, Mn and vitamin B6 in pyroluria, is important since this defect extends through many diagnostic categories.  The most urgent need is for daily supplements in those children now labeled mentally retarded, learning disabled, minimal brain damaged, autistic, dyslexic and hyperactive.  For this purpose, some philanthropic foundation might wish to make available at cost (or free of charge) a simple supplement consisting of the daily need for Zn and Mn, namely 15 and 4 mg respectively plus 25 mg of pyridoxine (vitamin B6 ). The patients could be used as their own controls and other vitamins could be used as placebo medication for the first two weeks of medication while the basic behavioral observations are being made.”
Zinc and Manganese in the Schizophrenias

It is clear Dr. Pfeiffer’s had learned much since his paper of 1974.  Unfortunately, the research team doesn’t seem to consider any role toxins may play in the condition of their patients.  

Treatment of Pyroluric Schizophrenia (Malvaria) With Large Doses of Pyridoxine and a Dietary Supplement of Zinc


The constant repetition by ‘Healthcare,’ that we must take care to prevent being poisoned by manganese is a misinformation campaign of the highest order.  Manganese poisoning comes from the following: welding, mining, drug addicts using Mn contaminated Ephedrone (Methcathinone) preparations, and in patients receiving high Mn concentrations in intravenous nutrition.  Manganese is not being accumulated in toxic amounts from the diet, or from ingesting supplements.

Lumping industrial manganese toxicity together with supposed symptoms of excess manganese from the diet or supplementation is a bit like saying Vitamin C is bad for us, because citrus fruits can fall out of trees and hit people on the head.

I do not recommend drinking alcohol and supplementing with manganese at the same time.  It is possible manganese can be accumulated in the brain for lack of vitamin B1, thiamine, and from having clogged up bile ducts, and/or cirrhosis of the liver.  It is consistently noted that people with cirrhosis of the liver will have high levels of manganese in the brain.  However, I don’t believe the accumulation of manganese is the root of the problem.  I believe it’s a deficiency of essentials, like thiamine, that will put the manganese to work.

Do not remain constipated and supplement with manganese, or any supplement for that matter.  However, for me, the following study from 1920 proves that manganese poisoning is not coming from ingestion of manganese.  (I love these older studies, since monetary interests of for-profit-drug companies don’t taint them.  This study is an easy and understandable read.)
Absorption and Elimination of Manganese Ingested as Oxides and Silicates

Historically, manganese toxicity, called manganism, was either coming from airborne manganese in mines or factories, or from long-term intravenous nutrition.  The reports of manganese poisoning from well water, came from manganese batteries dumped in the wells.  It is unclear what actually caused the poisoning.  There is NO data showing it was manganese.  The studies of manganese poisoning and abnormal behavior caused by water containing high-levels of manganese in several Greek communities, do not have the data to back it up, yet the studies were taken as the gold standard by governmental authorities. 

The following study is designed around finding out when the accumulation of manganese in the basal ganglia causes Parkinson’s.  In essence, it is treating as fact, the belief Manganese causes Parkinson’s.  There is absolutely NO proof that this is true.  Again, this is like saying that oxygen is bad for people because someone died from getting too much pure oxygen out of an oxygen tank.
“ Excess accumulation of manganese (Mn) in the brain results in a neurological syndrome with cognitive, psychiatric, and movement abnormalities. The highest concentrations of Mn in the brain are achieved in the basal ganglia, which may precipitate a form of parkinsonism with some clinical features that are similar and some that are different to those in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Recently, scientists have debated the possibility that Mn may have an etiological role in PD or that it may accelerate the expression of PD.”
Manganese and Parkinson’s Disease: A Critical Review and New Findings

In the 1830's, manganese miners and workers were found to develop Parkinson's like symptoms.  High levels of manganese were found in their basal ganglia, and ever since Parkinson’s has been associated with Manganese.  Manganese poisoning is called Manganism.

According to this author, Manganism and Parkinson’s have nothing to do with one another.

Finally, we have this doozy of a study, where they declare excess manganese neurotoxic, and that it accumulates in the central nervous system.  They never mention who was poisoned and how they were poisoned.  Then they mention possible manganese toxicity in those with hepatic encephalopathy.  Hepatic encephalopathy is defined as ‘a loss of brain function because the liver doesn’t remove toxins’.  To be clear, these researchers are using people with impaired livers, finding accumulated manganese in their brains, and implying its the source of their problems.  We see no discussion of neurotoxins like mercury, aluminum, alcohol, or deficiencies of vitamins like thiamine.

The researchers then proceed to take astrocytes, never cells, out of the human body, experiment with them in petri dishes, and then plant seeds of doubt by claiming that manganese ‘might’ cause low grade brain edema.

Manganese induces cell swelling in cultured astrocytes.

When doing your research, to find the truth, please look closely at what is being said, and what is not being said.


There are more than 75,000 visits a year from acetaminophen poisoning.

We are being inundated with aluminum.  The ‘aluminum can’ came onto the market in 1959.  Manganese is used for the strength of the can, and corrosion resistance.
Aluminum Alloy


All aluminum cans need interior coatings to protect them from corrosion, and many of these coatings are endocrine disruptors.  Additionally, the coatings are made to go with particular acids, and if they were to be mixed up, there could be substantial leaching of toxins into the food.

“Because of BPA, everybody dances around what to call the can’s internal corrosion inhibitor.  The FDA calls it a resinous and polymeric coating.  At Can School, Ball employees called it an organic coating, or water-based polymer. The EPA calls it a chemical pollutant.  Health researchers call it an endocrine disruptor, and a chronic toxin.”
The Secret Life of the Aluminum Can, a Feat of Engineering

It is possible that we are getting excess aluminum compounded with manganese in our bodies, which sits down in place of manganese, and simply doesn’t work properly, short circuiting our metabolic processes.

Glyphosate and Roundup
Stephanie Seneff and Tony Mira’s paper explains in detail how glyphosate can interfere with our metabolic use of manganese. 
Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases III: Manganese, neurological diseases, and associated pathologies

Iron Poisoning
If you want supplemental iron, eat a steak. 
If you have been supplementing with Iron; PLEASE STOP IT.
If you have had a blood test and have been told you have low iron, understand that only 0.1% of your iron is in your blood, and it is attached to a protein called transferrin.  There are most certainly other reasons your blood iron is low.


Iron, in a process called the ‘Fenton Reaction,’ can interfere with our detox capabilities.
“The Fenton reaction has importance in biology because it involves the creation of free radicals by chemicals that are present in vivo.  Transition-metal ions such as iron and copper donate or accept free electrons via intracellular reactions and help in creating free radicals.  Most intracellular iron is in ferric(+3 ion) form and must be reduced to the ferrous (+2) form to take part in Fenton reaction. Superoxide ions and transition metals act in a synergistic manner in the creation of free radical damage.  Therefore, although the clinical significance is still unclear, it is one of the viable reason to avoid iron supplementation in patients with active infections, whereas other reasons include iron-mediated infections.”
Fenton's reagent


“Cellular pools of iron can outcompete manganese for binding to manganese superoxide dismutase, and through Fenton chemistry, iron may counteract the benefits of non-proteinaceous manganese antioxidants.”
Battles with Iron: Manganese in Oxidative Stress Protection

Iron is not the enemy.  As previously noted at the start of this article, iron and manganese are neighbors.  Have them work together.

Radiation Poisoning
Manganese is the only element of the Group 7 Elements that is biologically essential to humans. 

Another of these elements, technetium-99, is a radioactive element used by the healthcare industry in nuclear medical imaging.
Group 7 Elements


Technetium-99 is used in 20 million diagnostic nuclear medical procedures yearly.   


A technetium-imaging test results in radiation exposures to the patient around 10 mSv (1000 mrem), the equivalent of about 500 chest X-ray exposures.
Technetium-99 Side Effects


Another group of elements are called halides.  Of the four halides, iodine is the only one essential to our well being, and the other three, bromine, chlorine, and fluoride, will displace it.  Is it possible that some of us are deficient in manganese because of exposure to this radioactive element, where this element has displaced our essential manganese?


Nuts and seeds have lots of manganese.  Legumes have high levels too.  Green foods have the right amount of manganese as well as animal products have them too.  This is my favorite list of sources of manganese from foods.
Manganese Rich Foods

Deficiency problems come when we have an industrial strength toxin that impinges on our manganese, or we have been depleted of manganese through excesses of other nutrients.


Do not remain constipated and supplement with manganese, or any supplement for that matter. 

When first adding in daily manganese at 50mg amounts or more, members from The Wilking Protocol Support Group have reported tightness in their chest, and/or in their midsections.  Manganese has a very close relationship with oxygen, and we may have been getting more oxygen and break down of ROS than our detox pathways were ready to handle.  The Wilking Protocol Support Group is here:


A good multi-vitamin like Perque Life Guard
Life guard also contains 15mg of manganese. 

Manganese – 50mg once a week to start
Any manganese as an ascorbate or chelate will be beneficial

Pyridoxine – Vitamin B6, 500mg
If you are exhibiting/feeling symptoms of a B6 deficiency, otherwise the B6 in your multi-vitamin will be sufficient.

Silica – Dr Willard’s Water is very strong.  I would drink this twice a week.  However, know that it has magnesium sulfate in it, and I wouldn’t add it in until your liver is cleaned up.  See Sulfur below.
This is the 1980 60 Minutes piece on Willard’s Water

This is a great store to get Willard’s

Sulfur – There is a very close relationship between sulfur and manganese.  Doing the Epsom Flush will help get your liver in order, so the rest of your body and cells can safely do its own methodical, meticulous detoxification.

Zinc – 50 mg of zinc sulfate on a full stomach, twice a week.


This article is written for research purposes only, and is not to be used for treating any medical condition.

Written by Albert Wilking

I recommend products that are natural to our well-being, and only ones that can be found in the grocery or health food store.  Everything I recommend I do myself.  Everything I do is on my website, and everyone can use my site to get back to feeling great, naturally.  However, some people can be very deep in the woods, allergic to just about everything, while suffering from chronic pain and inflammation.  Helping people naturally, takes time, patience, attention to detail, and experience.

Albert Wilking

These links contain the basics of The Wilking Protocol.
Poison as Medicine — Understanding Western Healthcare
Mercury Poisoning — How It Happens
Mercury 911 — Get Mercury Out Of Your Blood Stream Now!
Are You Mercury Toxic? - Please do this exercise
The Wilking Protocol — It Works Naturally
Testimonials — Proof The Wilking Protocol Works
Get Help Now — Consult with Albert Wilking

Vitamin C For Life — Humans Do Not Make Vitamin C
Salt Is Life — Animals Need Lots of Salt

Epsom Flush — Reduce Your Toxic Load
Thiamine Saves — The Addiction Vitamin

Potassium - Let The Truth Be Told
Magnesium - Inflammation and Nerves
Celery - Nitrate and the Microbiome

The Power of Iodine — Dashboard Of Our Body

Please purchase your essentials from ‘The Detox Protocols’ web page.

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The Wilking Protocol Support Group

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